Dr. Salih Muhammad Awadh, Iraq , Baghdad university , faculty of Science, Geology Dept
Translated by : Magdy Abd Al-Shafy
The layers of the earth
In this short study, when contemplating about the miracles of God in this universe, I will show the miracles in the creation of the earth though many people go unmindful of them. God says in the Holy Quran what means ” And in the earth are portents for those whose faith is sure “ (Al-Zaryat :20) According to seismology , the earth , from the surface to its center , is composed of three layers and these with the secondary ones form seven layers ( figure 1) , God refers to this well-established fact in the Holy Quran , God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge.” (56:12)
These layers are:
1-The earth Crust
It the solid part that we live on , it varies in thickness, the maximum thickness is under the mountain while thickness is relatively smaller under oceans; the earth crust can be scientifically categorized into two parts :
(a) The continental crust :
It is a rocky mass varying in thickness , the rate of thickness varies between 30Km-40Km in the continental areas while it reaches 70km under mountains
(b) The oceanic layer : it is a rocky structure encompassing the earth under oceans and the crust ; it is not harmonious structure with relatively thickness of 6km
The mantle : it is higher in dense than all the masses of the crust , it is complex in structure ; because of the high temperature and pressure , it is semi-rigid , it is the source of magma , it can be divided into three parts
(a)The upper mantle which goes deep to a depth of 400km under the crust .
(b) The transformation zone which extends from 400km to 1000km
? The lower mantle which extends from 1000 km to 2900km
3-The core of the earth , it is mainly composed of iron and Nickel and it can be divided into layers
a) The outer core which is in a liquid state , it extends from a depth of 2900km to 5080km
(b) The interior core : it is a rigid substance and it extends from a depth of
5080 to 6371 , it is believed that the internal core is the centre of the earth .
The rock layer of the earth on which we live has never been one mass but it is composed of what scientifically known as ( plates ) . God refers to this fact in the Holy Quran , ( And in the Earth are neighboring tracts, vineyards and ploughed lands, and date palms, like and unlike, which are watered with one water. And We have made some of them to excel others in fruit. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who have sense . ) (13-4)
These adjacent plates , that are mentioned in the Holy Quran , are that which are scientifically approved ( figure 2) , this is , now , the most well-established and the most scientifically well-supported fact , it is taught everywhere in the world universities , Geology department . The most well-known earth plates are :
2. African plate covering Africa
3. The Arabian plate
4. Antarctic plate covering Antarctic
5. Australian plate, covering Australia (fused with Indian plate between 50 and 55 million years ago)
6. North American Plate covering North America and north-east Siberia
7. South American plate covering South America
8. Pacific Plate covering the Pacific Plate
9. The Indian Plate
10. The Caribbean plate
11. The Philippine plate
The plates motion
the earth plates relatively moves slowly and constantly , it can’t be seen directly but can be recoded with highly advanced technology ; (1M a year was reported by this technology as regard the movement of one of these plates)and can be experienced during earthquakes .
There are three main kinds of motions as regard the plate movement :
Convergent movement , divergent movement and transform movement, in the divergent movement , two adjacent plate move in the opposite directions moving away from each other and this often happens in mid-floor of seas and oceans causing dint or protuberance and this result in the gushing out of the magma under sea water , being molten and with high pressure , it cause large mass of water to evaporate ; the Holy Quran has referred to this scientific fact in the following verse (And by the sea set on fire ) (81:6)
Ocean floor rift typifies a certain kind of earthquakes followed by magma out-break . This magma is composed of complex substance higher in density than the rocks of the crust , scientific studies have proved that density of the upper mantle is much higher in density than that of the earth crust (0.4gramme/ cm3 ) , the more we go down , the more differences in density . The Holy Quran refers to this scientific fact ( When Earth is shaken with her (final) earthquake and Earth yieldeth up her burdens(99:1-2)
These magma forms what is now known as the volcanic mountains which are termed as mid-ocean ridges, which rise over the oceans and seas water forming islands , the earthquake and volcanoes co-occurrence can be illustrated in (figure -3) the convergence movement means that two adjacent plate approach each other with result that they collide with each other , as they go on colliding ,one of them or both slidedown as far as 100Km with the result that they have their structure changed turning into semi-molten state because of the high temperature – this process typifies the corroding
(Of the ends of the plates or the ends of the earth as the Holy Quran depicts , this fact is mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following two Holy verses . God says in the Holy Quran in this regard what means ( See they not how We visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? (When) Allah doometh there is none that can postpone His doom, and He is swift at reckoning. “ (13:41)
Also God says also in the Holy Quran what means “Nay, but We gave these and their fathers ease until life grew long for them. See they not how we visit the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? Can they then be the victors? “ (21:44)
A plate might slide over the other forming structural mountains , these moves with the plates; these means that these mountains moves and that what the Holy Quran refers to , God says in the Holy Quran what means ( And when the hills are moved) (81:3)
Also God says in the Holy Quran what means ” Had it been possible for a Lecture to cause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak, (this Quran would have done so). Nay, but Allah’s is the whole command. Do not those who believe know that, had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? As for those who disbelieve, disaster ceaseth not to strike them because of what they do, or it dwelleth near their home until the threat of Allah come to pass. Lo! Allah faileth not to keep the tryst.”
Also God says in the Holy Quran what means “And (bethink you of) the Day when We remove the hills and ye see the earth emerging, and We gather them together so as to leave not one of them behind.(18:47)
Earth quakes and volcanoes eruptions accompany the collision of the plates , the same thing happens in the transform movement which cause fissures as long as it goes lengthwise ; this is also a proof that plates are in continuous motion since they were first formed up till now .
The movement of the earth plate reasons
The reason for the motion of the plates lies in the mantle under the crust whose thickness reaches 2800 km ,it is composed of rocky complex silicon material , partially or wholly molten, yet it is not in a liquid state but rather in a very viscous state with high temperature and pressure , it is well established that the deeper , the hotter inside the earth ; so the temperature of the lower parts in the mantle is higher than the upper , because of the variance of temperature between the plates of the earth , the giant convective currents take place moving from the lower parts to the upper parts circularly ?because of the difference in density – carrying up the hotter substance and then the less hot substances goes down because of its high density and weight , this process is constant and continuous (Figure -4) , the convective currents press hard on the earth crust over it causing it to move in any of the ways already mentioned motions
The movement of the earth plate is accurately calculated and compact; it keeps the mass of the earth and surface area , in the time when the end of one of the sunken plate wears away (or shrink in size ) a new rocky substance is generated in the facing end (mid-ocean ridges ) . These keep the gravity among space masses and keep these objects going in their orbits , this highly perfected accuracy can’t be a mere chance ?The earth ?a simple creatures – is among the many creatures of The Omnipotent -God omnipotence is infinite, God says in the Holy Quran what mean ” And they esteem not Allah as He hath the right to be esteemed, when the whole earth is His handful on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens are rolled in His right hand. Glorified is He and High Exalted from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him)( 39:67)
Mecca Location in the light of the plate movement through the geological ages
Geologists divides the historical geology of the earth into many divisions and subdivision to make it understandable when talking about a certain period of the earth age , the earth’s age is estimated to be 4.5 billions years ,the earth age extends from the Cambrian age till the modern age , since this age , the earth plates have been moving continuously changing their shapes and locations and even their numbers ? some of them were broken forming new plates while others were joined together .
It is scientifically ?established that the earth plates , through the long geological age , have been moving regularly around the Arabian plate ;these plates constantly converge towards it as if they pointed to it . Scientific studies affirm and attest these facts though not published to discuss the convergence of the plates towards the Arabian plate but published with irrelevant aims .
(Figure -5) shows the movement of the Indian plate according to magnetic anomalies estimations regarding the floor of Indian ocean , it also shows the different locations that both the Indian and sir lanka plates occupied over the span of the last 71 millions years up till now till it seemingly took its final place that is because its movement can’t be seen and that its movement is too slow , if compared with the human age . It is clear in (figure -5 ) that the Indian plate had moved northwards with a slight circulation counterclockwise( figure-5) , the movement of the Arabian plate is not taken into consideration in this figure , the location of the Saudi Arabia is a part of the Arabian plate .
(Figure -6) shows the location of Arabian plate according to the Indian , African , Turkish and Iranians plates ( it was first composed of a number of parts , this figure also shows the part middle of Iran as a separate part from the north of the west of Iran ) and Afghanistan , (figure -6) shows the location of these plate surrounding the Arabian plate , the dotted lines parts ( plates represented with discontinued line ) to the earth plate during the mid Jurasic Age
( that is one millions years ago ) . when looking carefully at( figure -6) , we will find that the Indian plate has moved northwards counterclockwise as far as a few degrees and so did the plates of Afghanistan , the middle and the north of the west of Iran , and Turkey
If we look at the location of the Arab plate in the one million years ago ( the part which is represented by dots) in ( figure 6) , we will find that it has moved a little northwards taking into consideration the movement of the far plates; it moved around counterclockwise. We can conclude that the Arabian plate in the last million years ( before creating the human being ) and at the present time took a mid position among the earth plates ? these plates encompass it (figure-6)
During her long time journey , the Arabian plate didn’t cover along distance as it is the center of the circulation movement, it has moved within the shorter diameter. So it is clear that the Arabian plate is center of the earth plates ,and everywhere it goes , it is followed by the other plates going round it regularly , each plate keeps its constant direction towards the Arabian plate . It is well-established that Mecca where the Moslem Kabba lies is in the Arabian plate (figure -7)
Now , if we use the same approach applied on the Arabian plate , we can say that every thing on and in the earth directs its face to Mecca where the Moslem Kabba lies , this system will go on , according to God’s will , to a certain time assigned by God , this accurate unwavering system can’t be out of a chance ; it is a supernatural power that made it and is still keeping it going on ? that is God , who rose the heavens with unseen pillars .
lso God says in the Holy Quran what means ” Allah is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things . “(39:62)
Also God says in the Holy Quran what means “Say (O Muhammad): Who is Lord of the heaven and the earth? Say: Allah! Say: Take ye then (others) beside Him for protectors, which, even for themselves, have neither benefit nor hurt? Say: Is the blind man equal to the seer, or is darkness equal to light? Or assign they unto Allah partners Who created the like of His creation so that the creation (which they made and His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty “(13:62)
Also God says in the Holy Quran what means “ So , now , since everything directs its face towards the Holy Mecca , and that the Holy Kabba is the center of Mecca , we can assuredly and scientifically say that Kabba is the center of the earth and that everything on or under it directs its face towards it in complete submissiveness and piety “
God says in the Holy Quran what means” Hast thou not seen that unto Allah payeth adoration whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts, and many of mankind, while there are many unto whom the doom is justly due. He whom Allah scorneth, there is none to give him honor. Lo! Allah doeth what He will.” (22:18 )
God says in the Holy Quran what means “And unto Allah falleth prostrate whosoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, as do their shadows in the morning and the evening hours. “ (13:15)
God says in the Holy Quran what means ” And unto Allah maketh prostration whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth of living creatures, and the angels (also), and they are not proud (16:49)
God says in the Holy Quran what means “And of His portents (is this): that thou seest the earth lowly, but when We send down water thereon it thrilleth and groweth. Lo! He who quickeneth it is verily the Quickener of the dead. Lo! He is Able to do all things “. (41:39)
God says in the Holy Quran what means” Allah hath appointed the Ka’bah, the Sacred House, a standard for mankind, and the Sacred Month and the offerings and the garlands. That is so that ye may know that Allah knoweth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and that Allah is Knower of all things.
Glory be to the Creator of the Heaves and the earth , we deeply implore Him to enlighten our dark heart with the light of his countenance that enlighten the Heavens and the earth
God says in the Holy Quran what means” And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the Prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged.” (39:67)
we deeply implore to him to animate our hearts with light of wisdom as he animate the barren land with rain and to accept our deeds and acts making them only for his pleasure
Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lords of the earth, the Lord of the Worlds. And unto Him (alone) belongeth majesty in the heavens and the earth, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. (45:36-37)
2-Spencer E. W. 2003: Earth Science, understanding environment systems. McGraw Hill. Toranto, 517p.
3- Forster, H., 1978: Mesozoic? Cenozoic metallogenesis in Iran. Journal of the Geological Society? London. Printed in the Netherland. Vol.135. pp 443-455. 8 figs